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Some cattle owners believe that the weakened mother losing her calf is better in times of drought so that she does not have to care for her calf, too.

Therefore, these owners are more hesitant to kill dingoes. Furthermore, the mortality rate of calves has many possible causes, and discriminating between them is difficult.

The only reliable method to document the damage would be to document all pregnant cows, then observe their development and those of their calves.

Loss of livestock is, therefore, not necessarily caused by the occurrence of dingoes and is independent from wild dogs.

Domestic dogs are the only terrestrial predators in Australia that are big enough to kill fully grown sheep, and only a few sheep manage to recover from the severe injuries.

In the case of lambs, death can have many causes apart from attacks by predators, which are blamed for the deaths because they eat from the carcasses.

Although attacks by red foxes are possible, such attacks are more rare than previously thought. Therefore, the damage to the livestock industry does not correlate to the numbers of wild dogs in an area except that no damage occurs where no wild dogs occur [].

The calf losses did not correlate with increased dingo activity, and the cattle diseases pestivirus and leptospirosis were a major cause.

Dingoes then scavenged on the carcasses. There was also evidence of dingo predation on calves. Among the indigenous Australians, dingoes were also used as hunting aids, living hot water bottles , and camp dogs.

Their scalps were used as a kind of currency , their teeth were traditionally used for decorative purposes, and their fur for traditional costumes.

Sometimes "pure" dingoes are important for tourism , when they are used to attract visitors. However, this seems to be common only on Fraser Island, where the dingoes are extensively used as a symbol to enhance the attraction of the island.

Tourists are drawn to the experience of personally interacting with dingoes. Pictures of dingoes appear on brochures, many websites, and postcards advertising the island.

The dingo is recognised as a native animal under the laws of all Australian jurisdictions. Australia has over national parks of which all but six are managed by the states and territories.

Dingo attacks on livestock led to widescale efforts to repel them from areas with intensive agricultural usage, and all states and territories have enacted laws for the control of dingoes.

Established methods for the control of dingoes in sheep areas entailed the employment of specific workers on every property. The job of these people who were nicknamed "doggers" was to reduce the number of dingoes by using steel traps , baits , firearms and other methods.

The responsibility for the control of wild dogs lay solely in the hands of the landowners. At the same time, the government was forced to control the number of dingoes.

As a result, a number of measures for the control of dingoes developed over time. It was also considered that dingoes travel over long distances to reach areas with richer prey populations, and the control methods were often concentrated along "paths" or "trails" and in areas that were far away from sheep areas.

All dingoes were regarded as a potential danger and were hunted. Apart from the introduction of the poison extensively used for 40 years and nicknamed "doggone" , the methods and strategies for controlling wild dogs have changed little over time.

Information concerning cultural importance to indigenous people and the importance of dingoes and the impact of control measures on other species is also lacking in some areas.

Historically, the attitudes and needs of indigenous people were not taken into account when dingoes were controlled. Other factors that might be taken into account are the genetic status degree of interbreeding of dingoes in these areas, ownership and land usage, as well as a reduction of killing measures to areas outside of the zones.

However, most control measures and the appropriate studies are there to minimise the loss of livestock and not to protect dingoes.

Increasing pressure from environmentalists against the random killing of dingoes, as well as the impact on other animals, demanded that more information needed to be gathered to prove the necessity of control measures and to disprove the claim of unnecessary killings.

Today, permanent population control is regarded as necessary to reduce the impact of all wild dogs and to ensure the survival of the "pure" dingo in the wild.

To protect livestock, livestock guardian dogs for example, Maremmas , donkeys , alpacas and llamas are used.

In the s, the Dingo Fence was erected on the basis of the Wild Dog Act and, until , thousands of miles of Dingo Fences had been erected in several areas of South Australia.

In the year , these efforts were directed to a single goal, and the Dingo Fence was finally completed. The fence connected with other fences in New South Wales and Queensland.

The main responsibilities in maintaining the Dingo Fence still lies with the landowners whose properties border on the fence and who receive financial support from the government.

A reward system local, as well from the government was active from to the end of the 20th century, but there is no evidence that — despite the billions of dollars spent — it was ever an efficient control method.

Therefore, its importance declined over time. Dingo scalping commenced in with the passage of the Wild Dogs Act by the government of South Australia.

In an attempt to reduce depredation on livestock, that government offered a bounty for dingo skins, and this program was later repeated in Western Australia and the Northern Territory.

One writer argues that this new legislation and economic driver had significant impacts on Aboriginal society in the region. Baits with the poison are regarded as the fastest and safest method for dog control, since they are extremely susceptible.

Even small amounts of poison per dog are sufficient 0. The assumption that the tiger quoll might be damaged by the poison led to the dwindling of areas where aerial baiting could be performed.

In areas where aerial baiting is no longer possible, it is necessary to put down baits. Over the last years, cyanide-ejectors and protection collars filled with on certain spots have been tested.

The eradication of dingoes due to livestock damage decreased along with the importance of the sheep industry and the usage of strychnine which beforehand had been used for years in the s.

The number of doggers also decreased and the frequency of government-approved aerial baiting increased. During this period, many farmers in Western Australia switched to the cattle industry, and findings in the area of biology led to a significant change in control measures and techniques in association with reduced costs and increased efficiency.

At the same time, the importance of increased. In , controversy surrounded a plan to inject a population of dingoes on Pelorus Island, off the coast of northern Queensland, Australia, with pills that would release a fatal dose of poison two years after the dingoes were to be intentionally released to help eradicate goats.

The dingoes were dubbed 'death-row dingoes', and the plan was blocked due to concerns for a locally threatened shorebird.

The efficiency of control measures was questioned in the past and is often questioned today, as well as whether they stand in a good cost-benefit ratio.

The premium system proved to be susceptible to deception and to be useless on a large scale, and can therefore only be used for getting rid of "problem-dogs".

Based on studies, it is assumed that only young dogs that would have died anyway can be captured. In one case, a dingo bitch followed a dogger and triggered his traps one after another by carefully pushing her paw through the sand that covered the trap.

Poisonous baits can be very effective when they are of good meat quality; however, they do not last long [] and are occasionally taken by red foxes, quolls, ants and birds.

Aerial baiting can nearly eliminate whole dingo populations. Furthermore, they can be a danger to the livestock or be killed by control measures themselves when they are not sufficiently supervised by their owners.

Control measures mostly result in smaller packs and a disruption of pack structure. The measures seem [ which? Nonetheless, it is regarded as unlikely that the control measures could completely eradicate the dingo in Central Australia, and the elimination of all wild dogs is not considered a realistic option.

It has been shown that culling a small percentage of immature dingoes on Fraser Island have little significant negative impact on the overall island population, though this is being disputed.

Until , the dingo was categorised as of "least concern" on the Red List of Threatened Species. Dingoes are reasonably abundant in large parts of Australia, but there is some argument that they are endangered due to interbreeding with other dogs in many parts of their range.

In some states, dingoes are regarded as declared pests and landowners are allowed to control the local populations. Throughout Australia, all other wild dogs are considered pests.

The island is home to a genetically distinct population of dingoes that are free of dog introgression , estimated to number Groups that have devoted themselves to the conservation of the "pure" dingo by using breeding programs include the Australian Native Dog Conservation Society and the Australian Dingo Conservation Association.

Presently, the efforts of the dingo conservation groups are considered to be ineffective because most of their dogs are untested or are known to be hybrids.

Dingo conservation efforts focus primarily on preventing interbreeding between dingoes and other domestic dogs in order to conserve the population of pure dingoes.

This is extremely difficult and costly. Conservation efforts are hampered by the fact that it is not known how many pure dingoes still exist in Australia.

Steps to conserve the pure dingo can only be effective when the identification of dingoes and other domestic dogs is absolutely reliable, especially in the case of living specimens.

Additionally, conservation efforts are in conflict with control measures. Conservation of pure and survivable dingo populations is promising in remote areas, where contact with humans and other domestic dogs is rare.

Under New South Wales state policy in parks, reserves and other areas not used by agriculture, these populations are only to be controlled when they pose a threat to the survival of other native species.

The introduction of "dog-free" buffer zones around areas with pure dingoes is regarded as a realistic method to stop interbreeding.

This is enforced in the way that all wild dogs can be killed outside of the conservation areas. However, studies from the year indicate that even an intensive control of core areas is probably not able to stop the process of interbreeding.

According to the Dingo Discovery Sanctuary and Research Centre, many studies are finding a case for the re-introduction of the dingo into previously occupied areas in order to return some balance to badly degraded areas as a result of "unregulated and ignorant farming practices".

Dingo densities have been measured at up to 0. European domestic dogs first arrived in Australia during the European colonisation.

These dogs reverted to the wild both unintentionally and intentionally , produced feral populations and interbred with the existing dingoes.

Hybrids of dingoes and domestic dogs exist today in all wild dog populations of Australia, with their numbers having increased to such a degree that any completely "pure" populations may no longer exist.

Dingo-like domestic dogs and dingo-hybrids can be generally distinguished from "pure" dingoes by their fur colour, since there is a wider range of colours and patterns among them than among dingoes.

In addition, the more dog-typical kind of barking exists among the hybrids, and differences in the breeding cycle, [] certain skull characteristics, [] and genetic analyses [] can be used for differentiation.

Despite all the characteristics that can be used for distinguishing between dingoes and other domestic dogs, there are two problems that should not be underestimated.

First, there is no real clarity regarding at what point a dog is regarded as a "pure" dingo, [] and, secondly, no distinguishing feature is completely reliable—it is not known which characteristics permanently remain under the conditions of natural selection.

There are two main opinions regarding this process of interbreeding. The first, and likely most common, position states that the "pure" dingo should be preserved via strong controls of the wild dog populations, and only "pure" or "nearly-pure" dingoes should be protected.

Conservation of these dogs should therefore be based on where and how they live, as well as their cultural and ecological role, instead of concentrating on precise definitions or concerns about "genetic purity".

Due to this interbreeding, there is a wider range of fur colours, skull shapes and body size in the modern-day wild dog population than in the time before the arrival of the Europeans.

Over the course of the last 40 years, [ when? It is also unclear what kind of role these hybrids would play in the Australian ecosystems.

However, it is unlikely that the dynamics of the various ecosystems will be excessively disturbed by this process. In , a total of 3, samples were included in the first continent-wide DNA study of wild dogs.

There was evidence of hybridisation in every region sampled. This indicates that domestic dogs have a low survival rate in the wild or that most hybridisation is the result of roaming dogs that return to their owners.

No populations of feral dogs have been found in Australia. In , a three dimensional geometric morphometric analysis of the skulls of dingoes, dogs and their hybrids found that dingo-dog hybrids exhibit morphology closer to the dingo than to the parent group dog.

Hybridisation did not push the unique Canis dingo cranial morphology towards the wolf phenotype, therefore hybrids cannot be distinguished from dingoes based on cranial measures.

The study suggests that the wild dingo morphology is dominant when compared with the recessive dog breed morphology, and concludes that although hybridisation introduces dog DNA into the dingo population, the native cranial morphology remains resistant to change.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Canid species native to Australia. This article is about the Australian dingo. For other uses, see Dingo disambiguation.

Temporal range: Holocene 3, years BP — recent [1] [2]. See also: Canine reproduction. Main article: Dingo attack. See also: Extinction of the thylacine in mainland Australia.

This article contains weasel words : vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. Such statements should be clarified or removed.

May This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Dingo—dog hybrid.

In Marc Oxenham; Hallie Buckley eds. Oxford UK: Routledge. Taxonomy of Australian Mammals. Systematisch-summarische Uebersicht der neuesten zoologischen Entdeckungen in Neuholland und Afrika: nebst zwey andern zoologischen Abhandlungen.

Dykischen, Leipzig. Blumenbach, J. Sechste Auflage. Johann Christian Dieterich, Göttingen. Edition 6. Translation: "Dingo. The New Holland dog.

Is similar, especially in the head and shoulders, as a fox. Australian Faunal Directory. Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 6 March Johns Hopkins University Press.

In Wilson, D. M eds. Catalogue of Life Checklist. Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 8 June Science AAAS. Retrieved 26 January Genome Research. Current Biology.

PLOS Genetics. William O Ecology and Evolution. A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay. Australian Archaeology.

Archived from the original PDF on 19 March Retrieved 18 January The University of Sydney. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 18 September Bargo, N.

Mazell, P. J: — Phillip, A. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 10 February Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition 2 ed.

Oxford University Press. Scientific Reports. Bibcode : NatSR Original study was published in Mankind v10 p in Tasmanian Aborigines.

Michael, ed. Food and Agriculture in New Guinea. Australian National University E. Retrieved 22 July Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Bibcode : PNAS.. Naming the scale of nature" PDF. Fillios; N. Colman; M. Letnic Journal of Zoology. Reece; Noel Meyers; Lisa A.

Urry; Michael L. Cain; Steven A. Wasserman; Peter V. Minorsky; Robert B. Jackson; Bernard N. Cooke Campbell Biology Australian and New Zealand version 10th ed.

Pierson Australia. Bibcode : Sci Cell Research. Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo.. Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History.

Australian Journal of Zoology. Advances in Genetics Research. Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 6 November Parks and Wildlife Service of the Northern Territory.

Archived from the original PDF on 1 December Retrieved 28 November Visitation rates at remote waterpoints in the Strzelecki Desert".

Australian Mammalogy. As a result, Dingoes are mostly absent from many parts of New South Wales, Victoria, the south-eastern third of South Australia and from the southern-most tip of Western Australia.

Dingoes are regarded as common throughout the remainder of Australia except in the arid eastern half of Western Australia, nearby parts of South Australia and the Northern Territory.

Dingoes are opportunistic carnivores. Mammals form the main part of their diet especially rabbits, kangaroos, wallabies and wombats.

When native species are scarce they are known to hunt domestic animals and farm livestock. This makes them very unpopular with pastoralists.

Failing this, the Dingo will eat reptiles and any food source it can find including insects and birds.

Scavenging at night, the Dingo is a solitary hunter but will form larger packs when hunting bigger game. It is thought that the Dingo contributed to the extinction of mainland Thylacines Tasmanian Tiger by becoming competition for the available food sources.

Dingoes display a clearly defined territory which is rarely left and often defended against other Dingoes. However, territory is known to be shared when Dingoes form packs for hunting.

Dingoes rarely bark. They tend to howl, particularly at night in an effort to attract pack members or to ward off intruders.

Other forms of communication include scent-rubbing, defecating and urinating on objects such as grass tussocks to mark territorial boundaries.

Pure Dingoes will breed once a year between March and June. The gestation period is approximately nine weeks similar to domestic dogs with the resultant litter producing usually between four and six pups.

Dingoes will rear their young in a hollow log, rock shelter, old rabbit warren or wombat burrow and both parents will be involved. Weaning of the pups occurs at about two months, at which time the pups may be abandoned or can stay with the parents for about a year.

Dingo pups are fully grown by seven months of age and adult Dingoes can live for up to ten years. Most female dingoes become sexually mature by 2 years of age while male dingoes will be sexually mature by the time they are a year old.

Only the most dominant members of an established Dingo pack will breed leaving the other members to help with the feeding of the pups. Dingoes have been in Australia for approximately 4, years and their ability to quickly adapt to a wide variety of habitats has seen changes in the ecosytems of which they are a part.

The question is not just a matter of curiosity about dingoes. There are several groups of people who could have brought the dingo to Australia.

Among the front-runners are Indian mariners who may have traveled to Australia, the seafaring Lapita people who spread eastward into the Pacific from East Asia, and traders from Timor and Taiwan who sailed throughout Southeast Asia.

A group of maritime hunters and gatherers, called the Toalean, from the southern peninsulas of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, were also on the list.

Although dingoes appear to have evolved from wolves before dogs did, much of their timing and evolution remains uncertain. That would seem to rule out Indian mariners.

Genetic evidence refines the picture even more. Recent DNA studies, for example, suggest that the animals arrived in Australia from Borneo and Sulawesi between and 12, years ago.

Meanwhile, a report found that dingoes lack multiple copies of a starch digestion gene ; their doggie cousins developed multiple copies while living with agricultural people.

That left the Lapita or the hunter-gatherer Toalean people as the main contenders.

However, our findings also suggest that the introduction of dingoes to Australia and New Guinea could reflect a distinct event, not necessarily related in time or point of origin to the spread of dogs to Island Southeast Asia.

Taiwan remains a viable candidate for the source for this particular migration. Both the haplogroup network and the Bayesian estimates of population splitting indicated a comparably ancient divergence of dingoes from the other populations.

Dingoes also carry a unique haplogroup, derived from a haplogroup H5 not sampled in Island Southeast Asia, arguing against their proximate origin from Island Southeast Asia.

The H5 haplogroup was relatively common in Taiwan, however, and the STR types in that haplogroup also were highly divergent from one another, consistent with considerable antiquity relative to the shallow genealogies observed in other haplogroups and locations.

On the other hand, the timing also would be consistent with origins of both the dingo and NGSD and Taiwanese dogs from the same expansion of Daic people of southern China Li et al.

The H5 type was reported previously in low frequency in dogs from Cambodia, China, and Siberia and in high frequency in Japan Ding et al. Because no other domesticates or human commensals made it to ancient Australia, determining the origins of dingoes would provide a critically important piece in the puzzle regarding the interchange between Indigenous Australian and Austronesian humans preceding the peopling of Polynesia Corbett ; Bellwood ; Oskarsson et al.

By using the known-age dingo population in Australia for calibration, we confirmed the EMRs of dog Y chromosome STRs to be similar on a per-generation basis and much more rapid in absolute time to those of humans, which have been used to date numerous late-Pleistocene and -Holocene events.

Our estimates, in turn, enabled us to age the H1 mutation associated with modern European dogs and to reject the assumption that its origin predated the Neolithic.

This finding argues against the hypothesis that dogs were originally domesticated in Southeast Asia and suggests, instead, that a Neolithic expansion of dogs from Southeast Asia partially replaced the earliest dogs from the West.

We further hypothesize that, although dogs did not originate in Southeast Asia, they underwent a significant evolutionary transformation in this region that enabled them to demographically dominate and largely replace earlier western forms and that this transformation could have been central to the evolution dog diversity.

The dogs of southern China could have been the first large population to have been reproductively isolated from wolves Canis lupus , possibly accelerating their phenotypic divergence and diversification as a domesticate.

Rapid spread of such a dog in combination with interbreeding with ancient western dogs could have produced a variety of forms, laying the basis for the first ancient regional breeds, which were first evident approximately 8, years ago Larson et al.

If so, the dingo and NGSD, which our data suggest predated the dogs of Island Southeast Asia, would reflect the last vestiges of this early Southeast Asian dog before its reacquaintance with western continental lineages.

In total, we used male dogs, including 89 dingoes and 18 NGSDs genotyped for this study, along with 5 dingoes and male dogs used in a previous study Brown et al.

We extracted DNA from muscle tissue of 89 new dingoes primarily from the interior of northwestern Australia, the part of the continent where genetic purity of dingoes is high Stephens We applied a third, confirmatory criterion in this study based on mtDNA D-loop sequences, which were diagnostic for indigenous matrilines and therefore more sensitive than the other methods for detecting historical matrilineal introgression Savolainen et al.

The 18 NGSD samples were buccal swabs of individuals bred in captivity, originating from only 1—7 male founders Koler-Matznick et al. Tissue DNA was extracted according to methods of Ivanova et al.

We amplified, via polymerase chain reaction PCR , and sequenced a bp fragment of the mtDNA D loop of the new dingoes using previously published primers Savolainen et al.

The 29 SNPs included 11 used by Brown et al. We successfully genotyped tissue-extracted DNA including most of the dingo samples in a single multiplex of all 29 loci and initially attempted to genotype swab samples in locus multiplexes as well.

However, many of the swab samples failed to produce full genotypes or at least unambiguous ones and were therefore rerun using a subset of 15 markers necessary to resolve haplotypes within the Southeast Asian clade supplementary table S3 , Supplementary Material online.

All samples had been determined to be in the Southeast Asian clade based on an earlier round of genotyping, either in the study by Brown et al.

To illustrate the genealogical relationships among Y chromosome haplotypes and haplogroups Y-STR haplotypes sharing the same Y-SNP haplotype , we constructed statistical parsimony networks with the median joining MJ algorithm implemented in Networks v 4.

Although the reduced median algorithm performs better at resolving deeper rooting lineages when only STRs are used, the MJ approach is better suited for using locus weighting information to resolve homoplasy in closely clustered haplogroups Forster et al.

Because we incorporated 29 biallelic unique event polymorphisms SNPs in our analysis, we were confident in the deeper phylogenetic structure i.

As per Brown et al. Specifically, we weighted STR loci as follows: — Breed dogs were included in the first network, along with NGSDs and Iranian village dogs the small subset from Brown et al.

A second network using only Southeast Asian village dogs and Australian dingoes was constructed and provided the basis for mutation rate estimates.

The SE of the estimate was estimated using the tree-specific algorithm of Saillard et al. Australian dingoes are known to have been established and isolated for 5,—3, years Corbett ; Bellwood ; Savolainen et al.

Ancestral haplotypes were identified based on internal placement and centrality in a given haplogroup within the network, frequency, and on the sharing between dingoes and NGSDs Corbett A similar approach was used with the Bali dogs for comparison despite the less certain isolation history of the population, presuming that dogs arose with the first Austronesian colonizations 4,—3, years ago Bellwood ; Karafet et al.

Although this approach to estimating mutation rate is relatively robust to the existence of population structure, certain demographic scenarios result in underestimated SEs Cox Moreover, the estimates assume particular ancestor-descendent relationships reflected in the network.

Therefore, we used a complimentary approach that was less dependent upon assumptions about specific ancestor-descendent relationships among haplotypes except for the need to assume an ancestral node.

Specifically, for the main haplogroup within each of the dingo and Bali dog populations, we calculated the ASD in repeat length for all loci between a presumed ancestral haplotype and all descendent haplotypes Zhivotovsky et al.

The ASD has the expected value of the effective i. We conducted three sets of analyses. First dingoes, then Bali dogs, were analyzed independently, followed by a population-wide analysis of all Southeast Asian village dogs and dingoes.

We conducted analyses using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm of Wilson et al. Given that dingoes arose at least 3, years ago from a small number of founders, their demographic history likely included an exponential growth phase followed by slowing growth and constant size once carrying capacity was reached.

Dingo remains dated across the continent by approximately 3, BP Fillios et al. Nevertheless, we initially employed the most flexible model that of constant ancestral size followed by exponential increase.

These runs were compared with runs of the constant-population size model to assess sensitivity of posteriors to model choice.

We chose STR mutation rate priors following gamma distributions with shape parameter set to 1 to ensure values approaching zero were well sampled regardless of the expected value, which was controlled by varying the scale parameter.

Prior ranges were chosen to include expected per-generation values estimated for human Y STRs, 0. For comparison, gamma 1. The mutation rates were allowed to vary across loci.

We used SNPs i. Convergence was confirmed through replicate runs initiated with different random number seeds.

Likelihoods and posterior distributions were evaluated in program Tracer v 1. We took advantage of the entire Australasian dog data set to investigate splitting times of the various island populations.

In particular, we tested the prediction that the splitting time estimated for dingoes in this analysis would be the same as the TMRCA of the analysis based strictly on the dingo data set, both of which we assumed would be equal to the time since establishment of that population.

In addition, we assessed the extent to which the Bali dog population experienced immigration after establishment through comparison of the within-population TMRCA and the estimated splitting time.

Our expectation was that if the Bali population had remained isolated since founding 4,—3, years ago Bellwood ; Karafet et al. For comparison to mutation rates in human Y STR markers, the per-year mutation rate estimates were transformed to per-generation estimates assuming generation time ranged 2—4 years Corbett and, conservatively, that the TMRCA for dingoes ranged generations 3, years of 4-year generations to 2, generations 5, years of 2-year generations.

Similarly, Bali-based estimates were transformed to or 2, generations reflecting their 4, to 3, BP founding time. For samples, the authors thank the late A.

Wilton, L. Allen, J. For technical assistance, they thank J. Malvick, T. Kun, and B. Two anonymous reviewers provided helpful suggestions.

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Materials and Methods. Sacks , Benjamin N. Oxford Academic. Sarah K. Danielle Stephens. Niels C. Jui-Te Wu. Oliver Berry.

Associate editor: Matthew Hahn. Cite Cite Benjamin N. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Dogs originated more than 14, BP, but the location s where they first arose is uncertain.

Austronesian expansion , dingo , dog , evolutionary mutation rate , single tandem repeat , Y chromosome. Open in new tab Download slide.

Table 1. Haplotype a. Excluding Indels. Inferred Origin. GenBank No. Open in new tab. Table 2. However in the desert areas, the fur is more golden yellow while in forested areas the fur can be a darker tan to black.

The body fur is short while the tail is quite bushy. Its dog-like appearance with a relatively broad head and erect ears, makes the Dingo Australia's largest mammal carnivore.

With canine teeth longer than those of a domestic dog, the dingo's muzzle is also longer and tapered.

Get our monthly emails for amazing animals, research insights and museum events. Generally speaking, Dingoes can live in a wide range of habitats found on the Australian mainland.

Their preference is woodland and grassland areas that extend to the edge of forests. They are only limited by access to viable water sources.

The introduction of agriculture by early European settlers and the fear of predation of livestock, saw their range reduced.

Having been in Australia for over 4, years, Dingoes inhabited many parts of mainland Australia but never became established in Tasmania.

After European colonisation and the growth of pastoralisation, there was a concerted effort to remove Dingoes from farming areas.

As a result, Dingoes are mostly absent from many parts of New South Wales, Victoria, the south-eastern third of South Australia and from the southern-most tip of Western Australia.

Dingoes are regarded as common throughout the remainder of Australia except in the arid eastern half of Western Australia, nearby parts of South Australia and the Northern Territory.

Dingoes are opportunistic carnivores. Mammals form the main part of their diet especially rabbits, kangaroos, wallabies and wombats. When native species are scarce they are known to hunt domestic animals and farm livestock.

This makes them very unpopular with pastoralists. Failing this, the Dingo will eat reptiles and any food source it can find including insects and birds.

Scavenging at night, the Dingo is a solitary hunter but will form larger packs when hunting bigger game.

It is thought that the Dingo contributed to the extinction of mainland Thylacines Tasmanian Tiger by becoming competition for the available food sources.

Dingoes display a clearly defined territory which is rarely left and often defended against other Dingoes.

However, territory is known to be shared when Dingoes form packs for hunting. So who brought them? The question is not just a matter of curiosity about dingoes.

There are several groups of people who could have brought the dingo to Australia. Among the front-runners are Indian mariners who may have traveled to Australia, the seafaring Lapita people who spread eastward into the Pacific from East Asia, and traders from Timor and Taiwan who sailed throughout Southeast Asia.

A group of maritime hunters and gatherers, called the Toalean, from the southern peninsulas of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, were also on the list.

Although dingoes appear to have evolved from wolves before dogs did, much of their timing and evolution remains uncertain. That would seem to rule out Indian mariners.

Genetic evidence refines the picture even more. Recent DNA studies, for example, suggest that the animals arrived in Australia from Borneo and Sulawesi between and 12, years ago.

Meanwhile, a report found that dingoes lack multiple copies of a starch digestion gene ; their doggie cousins developed multiple copies while living with agricultural people.

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